First Study on Wood Smoke Effects on COPD in US

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First Study on Wood Smoke Effects on COPD in US

Postby Wilberforce » Thu Jul 01, 2010 7:55 pm

Jul 01, 2010 08:10 ET
First Study Ever on Effect of Wood Smoke in Smokers Conducted by the Lovelace Respiratory Research Institute

First Study on Wood Smoke Effects on COPD in US

ALBUQUERQUE, NM--(Marketwire - July 1, 2010) - The nation's first scientific study on the effects of wood smoke in smokers shows that wood smoke is associated with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), and has identified a link that increases the risk for reduced lung function in cigarette smokers. That exposure to wood smoke causes COPD was previously found to be common in women in developing countries, but has not been recognized as being a hazard at concentrations generally found in developed countries.

The objective was to evaluate the risk of wood smoke for COPD in a population of smokers in the United States, and whether non-hereditary changes of DNA that were detected in sputum samples of these patients were correlated to the disease of COPD as shown by the destruction of lung function. The association between wood smoke and reduced lung function was stronger among current cigarette smokers, non-Hispanic whites and men.

Lead investigators at Lovelace Respiratory Research Institute (LRRI) in New Mexico, the only dedicated respiratory research center in the US, in collaboration with the University of New Mexico School of Medicine and the University of Colorado at Denver, conducted the study which was financed by the appropriation from the Tobacco Settlement Fund, and from the National Institutes of Health (NIH). The findings were recently published in the American Journal of Respiratory Critical Care Medicine, a publication by the American Thoracic Society.

Yohannes Tesfaigzi, Ph.D., Senior Scientist at LRRI based in ABQ, NM and lead investigator, said, "The findings are significant and timely because it shows that there are many factors that reduce lung function in the world today." Tesfaigzi continued, "Our findings suggest that smokers of cigarettes who are exposed to wood smoke increase their risk of having reduced lung function."

For the research, a cross sectional study of 1,827 subjects were drawn from the Lovelace Smokers' Cohort, a predominantly female cohort of smokers that is unique with its high percentage of Mexican Hispanic participants. The wood smoke exposure was self-reported. The research included measuring air entering and leaving the lungs, airflow obstruction and chronic bronchitis. Also explored were modification of wood smoke exposure with current cigarette smokers, ethnicity, sex, and the relationship with lung cancer-related genes on COPD.

Robert W. Rubin, Ph.D., CEO of Lovelace Respiratory Research Institute, said, "Many people use wood smoke as a major heating source and also smoke cigarettes, and this research proves that it can be a very unhealthy combination." Rubin continued, "With the legitimate concern to find alternative energy and heating methods in the world, we need more research of this kind to make certain that we do not add to the many factors in the air we breathe that will contribute to the destruction of lung function."

About Lovelace Respiratory Research Institute

The Lovelace Respiratory Research Institute (LRRI) is a private, biomedical research organization dedicated to improving public health through research on the prevention, treatment and cure of respiratory disease. LRRI is committed to curing respiratory diseases through research aimed at understanding their causes and biological mechanisms; assessing and eliminating exposures to respiratory health hazards; and developing improved therapeutics, vaccines, and diagnostics. LRRI is based in Albuquerque, New Mexico, employs 1100 people, and is a $125 million company. www.lrri.org

source
http://www.marketwire.com/press-release ... 284773.htm
• The Surgeon General has determined that there is no safe level of exposure to ambient smoke!

• If you smell even a subtle odor of smoke, you are being exposed to poisonous and carcinogenic chemical compounds!

• Even a brief exposure to smoke raises blood pressure, (no matter what your state of health) and can cause blood clotting, stroke, or heart attack in vulnerable people. Even children experience elevated blood pressure when exposed to smoke!

• Since smoke drastically weakens the lungs' immune system, avoiding smoke is one of the best ways to prevent colds, flu, bronchitis, or risk of an even more serious respiratory illness, such as pneumonia or tuberculosis!
Does your child have the flu? Chances are they have been exposed to ambient smoke!
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Another article

Postby Wilberforce » Fri Jul 16, 2010 12:37 pm

Wood smoke exposure multiplies damage from smoking, increases risk of COPD
Science Centric | 16 July 2010 11:49 GMT

Smokers who are exposed to wood smoke, either through home heating and cooking or through ambient neighbourhood pollution, are not only at increased risk of COPD, but are also more likely to have epigenetic changes in the DNA that further increase their risk of COPD and related pulmonary problems.

Together, smoking, wood smoke exposure and these epigenetic changes can increase an individual's risk of COPD fourfold.

'When cigarette smokers are exposed to wood smoke their risk of having reduced lung function increases,' explained lead author Yohannes Tesfaigzi, Ph.D. senior scientist and director of COPD Program at the Lovelace Respiratory Research Institute, where the research was completed. 'Cigarette smokers who have both changes in sputum DNA and are exposed to wood smoke have a synergistically increased risk of having reduced lung function and other indicators of COPD such as chronic mucous hypersecretion. '

The research was published online ahead of the print edition of the American Thoracic Society's American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine.

Dr Tesfaigzi and colleagues administered questionnaires to more than 1800 current and former smokers between 40 and 75 years old, and obtained demographic and smoke exposure information, as well as sputum samples which were analysed for epigenetic changes to eight genes known to be associated with lung cancer.

They found that wood smoke exposure was significantly and independently associated with an increased risk of respiratory disease, especially among current smokers, non-Hispanic whites and men. Furthermore, wood smoke exposure was associated with specific COPD outcomes in people who had aberrantly methylated p16 or GATA4 genes, and both factors together increased the risk more than the additive of the two risk factors together. They also found that people with more than two of the eight genes analysed showing methylation were also significantly more likely to have a lower than predicted FEV1 than those with fewer than two methylated genes.

'Because exposure to wood smoke appears to increase the risk of reducing lung function, cigarette smokers should try to avoid heating their homes or cooking with wood stoves and try to avoid environments where wood smoke is likely (for example, neighbourhoods where wood smoke is common),' said Dr Tesfaigzi. 'Because the same gene changes were associated with increased risk for lung cancer one would assume that wood smoke exposure also increases the risk of developing lung cancer. Future studies may show that it would be appropriate to screen patients for lung cancer if these exposures were present for prolonged periods.'

Based on these findings, Dr Tesfaigzi and colleagues established an animal model that will be able to further test whether both wood and tobacco smoke exposure cause more damage to the lung than either one of the exposures alone. 'We observed increased inflammatory response in mice that were exposed to both cigarette smoke and low concentrations of wood smoke compared to those exposed to cigarette smoke only. We would like to use this animal model to determine the mechanisms underlying this exacerbation,' said Dr Tesfaigzi.

Because wood smoke exposure was documented by self-report and was not quantified in this study, in the future Dr Tesfaigzi also intends to characterise the type and amount of wood smoke the participants were exposed to. Such studies will help to further refine the analysis and provide intervention strategies.

Source: American Thoracic Society

source
http://www.sciencecentric.com/news/1007 ... -copd.html
• The Surgeon General has determined that there is no safe level of exposure to ambient smoke!

• If you smell even a subtle odor of smoke, you are being exposed to poisonous and carcinogenic chemical compounds!

• Even a brief exposure to smoke raises blood pressure, (no matter what your state of health) and can cause blood clotting, stroke, or heart attack in vulnerable people. Even children experience elevated blood pressure when exposed to smoke!

• Since smoke drastically weakens the lungs' immune system, avoiding smoke is one of the best ways to prevent colds, flu, bronchitis, or risk of an even more serious respiratory illness, such as pneumonia or tuberculosis!
Does your child have the flu? Chances are they have been exposed to ambient smoke!
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Wilberforce
 
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Location: USA

Wood Smoke Risky in COPD

Postby Wilberforce » Mon Jul 19, 2010 6:19 pm

Wood Smoke Risky in COPD
By Kristina Fiore, Staff Writer, MedPage Today
Published: July 19, 2010
Reviewed by Adam J. Carinci, MD; Instructor, Harvard Medical School.

Exposure to wood smoke may increase the risk of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) -- particularly among current smokers, researchers have found.

Breathing in wood smoke, either through home heating, cooking, or ambient outdoor pollution, was associated with a twofold increased risk of airflow obstruction, according to Yohannes Tesfaigzi, PhD, of Lovelace Respiratory Research Institute in Albuquerque, N.M., and colleagues.

They reported their findings in the American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine.

"Because exposure to wood smoke appears to increase the risk of reducing lung function, cigarette smokers should try to avoid heating their homes or cooking with wood stoves and try to avoid environments where wood smoke is likely, for example, neighborhoods where wood smoke is common," Tesfaigzi said in a statement.

Wood smoke-associated chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is common among women in developing countries, but hasn't been adequately described in developed countries, the researchers said.

So to determine whether wood smoke exposure was a risk factor for COPD among smokers in the U.S., the researchers conducted a cross-sectional study of 1,827 patients from the Lovelace Smokers' Cohort, which is predominantly female and maintains records of wood smoke exposure.

About 28% of the cohort reported such exposure.

The researchers found that breathing wood smoke was independently associated with greater odds of respiratory disease, particularly among current smokers, non-Hispanic whites, and men.

Self-reported exposure was independently associated with a significant risk of low percent predicted forced expiratory volume (FEV1) (P<0.001).

It was also associated with a higher prevalence of airflow obstruction and chronic bronchitis (OR 1.96, 95% CI 1.52 to 2.52 and OR 1.64, 95% CI 1.31 to 2.06, respectively, both significant at P<0.001).

The associations were significantly stronger among current cigarette smokers, non-Hispanic whites, and men, the researchers said.

And in genetic association analyses, wood smoke exposure also interacted in a dose-dependent manner with aberrant promoter methylation of the p16 or GATA4 genes on lower percent predicted FEV1.

Among those exposed, methylation of the p16 gene and of GATA 4 was significantly associated with lower percent predicted FEV1. GATA4 methylation was also associated with higher odds of airflow obstruction.

"Because the same gene changes were associated with increased risk for lung cancer, one would assume that wood smoke exposure also increases the risk of developing lung cancer," Tesfaigzi said in a statement. "Future studies may show that it would be appropriate to screen patients for lung cancer if these exposures were present for prolonged periods."

The study was limited because it may not be generalizable, the authors wrote.

Still, the researchers called for additional studies on associations between wood smoke and COPD in cigarette smokers "with particular emphasis on understanding the characteristics and dose-response relationship of wood smoke exposure."

source
http://www.medpagetoday.com/Pulmonology ... COPD/21236

Image
• The Surgeon General has determined that there is no safe level of exposure to ambient smoke!

• If you smell even a subtle odor of smoke, you are being exposed to poisonous and carcinogenic chemical compounds!

• Even a brief exposure to smoke raises blood pressure, (no matter what your state of health) and can cause blood clotting, stroke, or heart attack in vulnerable people. Even children experience elevated blood pressure when exposed to smoke!

• Since smoke drastically weakens the lungs' immune system, avoiding smoke is one of the best ways to prevent colds, flu, bronchitis, or risk of an even more serious respiratory illness, such as pneumonia or tuberculosis!
Does your child have the flu? Chances are they have been exposed to ambient smoke!
User avatar
Wilberforce
 
Posts: 4917
Joined: Wed Jul 25, 2007 11:36 pm
Location: USA


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