Khaiwal Ravindra, Ranjeet Sokhia, René Van Griekenb
https://uhra.herts.ac.uk/dspace/bitstre ... 901994.pdf
"Low-temperature bio-fuel combustion has the potential to result in higher emissions of PAHs than high-temperature
industrial sources. PAHs emission factors from wood combustion in small-scale space heating stoves exceeded those
from furnace-oil combustion by a factor of 100 on an energy equivalent basis (Smith, 1987). Venkataraman et al. (2002)"
"In Sweden, wood burning has been estimated to contribute 430 kg B[a]P in 1994, whereas gasoline and diesel vehicles
together were estimated to contribute up to 320 kg B[a]P (Bostro¨ m et al., 1999). Similar results have been reported
for Los Angeles city, and specifcally during winter, with a higher PAH to organic carbon ratio resulting from wood
combustion than those from vehicular emission (Schauer and Cass, 2000)."
"There is an increasing concern about the occurrence of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in the
environment as they are ubiquitous in ambient air and some of them are among the strongest known
carcinogens. PAHs and their derivatives are produced by the incomplete combustion of organic material
arising, partly, from natural combustion such as forest and volcanic eruption, but with the majority due
to anthropogenic emissions. The PAH concentration varies signicantly in various rural and urban
environments and is mainly infuenced by vehicular and domestic emissions. The review serves as a
database to identify and characterize the emission sources of PAHs and hence various approaches
including diagnostic ratio (DR) and principal component analysis (PCA) are discussed in detail. These
approaches allow individual PAHs to be associated with their origin sources. The factors that effect PAH
emission and estimated emission rate are also discussed in this paper. Although the levels of low molecular
weight PAHs are high in vapor phase, most of the probable human carcinogenic PAHs are found to be
associated with particulate matter, especially in fine mode particles in ambient air. Many countries have
proposed a non-mandatory concentration limit for PAHs, whereas the health risk studies conducted in
relation to PAH exposure, urge that these pollutants should be given a high priority when considering air
quality management and reduction of impacts."
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