Acrolein in smoke suppresses the immune system

Research studies on wood smoke and other air pollution.

Acrolein in smoke suppresses the immune system

Postby Wilberforce » Sun Sep 13, 2009 10:00 pm

RESEARCH PAPERS

Acrolein in cigarette smoke inhibits T-cell responses
Lambert, et al
http://www.jacionline.org/article/S0091 ... 2/abstract

"The potency and volatility of acrolein could also account for the apparent immunosuppressive effects of
passive smoke. A recent study of 4486 infants demonstrated a strong correlation between the incidence
of severe respiratory tract infections and the proximity of the child to cigarette smoke while nursing.
In addition, children infected with Mycobacterium tuberculosis are 5 times more likely to develop active
pulmonary tuberculosis if exposed to tobacco smoke. At a respiration rate of 2 to 4 L/min, a child could
theoretically receive an immunosuppressive dose of acrolein (~10-30 mg) from a 1-hour exposure to the
levels of second-hand smoke typically found in restaurants. Further research is therefore necessary to
identify biomarkers of acrolein exposure and to assess the pharmacodynamics of acrolein exposure."


Acrolein is present in significant quantities in wood smoke.

Up to 100 mg of acrolein is released by the combustion of one kilogram of wood.
_________________________________________________________________________________

NEW LINK (must choose "create PDF" or other options)
A Summary of the Emissions Characterization and Noncancer Respiratory Effects of Wood Smoke
http://nepis.epa.gov/Exe/ZyPURL.cgi?Dockey=2000IK0H.TXT
_______________________________________________________________________________________

A T-cell is part of the body's immune system:
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/T_cell
_______________________________________________________________________________________

NEW LINK
Prioritization of Toxic Air Contaminants Under the Children's Environmental Health Protection Act
http://oehha.ca.gov/air/toxic_contamina ... eport.html
http://oehha.ca.gov/air/toxic_contamina ... zation.pdf
Acrolein has been measured in smoky indoor air. In bars and restaurants, levels between
2.3 and 275 mg/m3 have been reported (IARC, 1995: citing Triebig and Zober, 1984; Löfroth
et al., 1989). In residences where wood stoves were used, concentrations from 0.7-6.0 mg/m3
have been reported (IARC, 1995: citing Highsmith et al., 1988).


NEW LINK
Cigarette smoking as a risk factor for epidemic a(h1n1) influenza in young men
Kark, et al
http://www.nejm.org/doi/full/10.1056/NE ... 0213071702
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Re: Acrolein in smoke inhibits

Postby pm2.5mary » Fri Oct 02, 2009 10:39 pm

Good Sleuthing! Thank you for posting this important research! These papers fill an important gap. Now we still need to find a paper about the smoke particles also being vectors for bacteria and virus. We know this from testimony of live bacteria and virus found at altitudes of 1,000 feet. The soot particles' ability to absorb moisture and toxins makes a cozy home for disease causing organisms. Someone knows all about this, we need to find their work. I have not finished reading all of this yet. Very exciting...

Thanks again, yes, we will move this over to the website.
"Particulate pollution is the most important contaminant in our air. ...we know that when particle levels go up, people die. " (Joel Schwartz, Ph.D., Harvard School of Public Health, E Magazine, Sept./Oct. 2002)
Find more at http://burningissues.org
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Re: Acrolein in smoke suppresses the immune system

Postby Wilberforce » Mon Nov 16, 2009 8:02 pm

NEW LINK
School Air Toxics Project – An Overview and Lessons Learned
Driscoll
http://www.epa.gov/ttnchie1/conference/ ... iscoll.pdf

NEW LINK
Procedure for the Determination of Acrolein and other
Volatile Organic Compounds (VOCs) In Air...
http://www.epa.gov/ttnamti1/files/ambie ... rolein.pdf
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Re: Acrolein in smoke suppresses the immune system

Postby Wilberforce » Tue Dec 29, 2009 11:07 pm

Acrolein is a major cigarette-related lung cancer agent:
Preferential binding at p53 mutational hotspots and inhibition of DNA repair

Feng, et al
http://www.pnas.org/content/103/42/15404.abstract

From the full article (OPEN ACCESS)
"Acr is one of the most abundant compounds generated in CS; the amount of Acr in a single cigarette,
depending on the manufacturer, ranges from 10 to 500 µg. The total amount of PAHs present in CS,
in contrast, is in the range of just a few micrograms. Acr has been shown to interact with nucleophiles,
including DNA and proteins in cells. Unlike PAHs, where only metabolically activated forms can form
adducts with DNA, Acr can directly interact with DNA and form DNA adducts. Similar to PAH–DNA
adducts, Acr–DNA adducts induce mainly G:C-to-T:A transversion mutations, the major type of mutations
found in the p53 gene in CS-related lung cancer. Although the carcinogenicity of Acr in the lung has not
been studied because of the severe toxicity associated with Acr treatment in animals, i.p. injection of Acr
has been shown to cause bladder cancer in rats. These results indicate that Acr is indeed a carcinogenic
substance...These results strongly suggest that Acr–dG adducts, as well as PAH–DNA adducts, contribute
greatly to these mutations in lung cancer."
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Re: Acrolein in smoke suppresses the immune system

Postby pm2.5mary » Wed Dec 30, 2009 12:26 am

Thanks Woodnyet! Stocking up on science is the way to arm ourselves to stop wood smoke and wood burning for good in 2010.

Happy New Year! No wood burning allowed!
"Particulate pollution is the most important contaminant in our air. ...we know that when particle levels go up, people die. " (Joel Schwartz, Ph.D., Harvard School of Public Health, E Magazine, Sept./Oct. 2002)
Find more at http://burningissues.org
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Re: Acrolein in smoke suppresses the immune system

Postby Wilberforce » Wed Dec 30, 2009 10:38 am

Thanks Mary. The reason I am blasting away at acrolein, is that I feel it may
be the chemical constituent in wood (and tobacco) smoke which has potentially
the most imminent effect on the lungs. And most importantly during this
flu season.
We hear of many H1N1 deaths across the country; one would
think people (if they were aware of the smoke/smoking/immune depletion effects)
would try to avoid any and all particulate matter and smoke. I always remind my
students to quit smoking and not to attend bonfires.

The same goes for cooking oils. For those working in restaurants and home
kitchens, acrolein vapor from overheated fats (as well as PM 2.5 and PM 10)
can build up in enclosed places. For example, my two brother-inlaw chefs
made a nice pork roast (by searing and braising). The searing part put a lot
of particulate in the air, of mostly the larger sizes. It may be cold up here,
but the windows had to be opened (I need an actual vent over my stove
to replace the faux one)

Here is an acrolein-related study, already posted in Science:

Exposure to Mutagenic Aldehydes and Particulate Matter During Panfrying
of Beefsteak with Margarine, Rapeseed Oil, Olive Oil or Soybean Oil

viewtopic.php?f=15&t=1582
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Re: Acrolein in smoke suppresses the immune system

Postby DannyBoy » Mon May 17, 2010 8:41 pm

Thanks for that post. it is very useful.
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Acrolein in smoke may cause M.S.

Postby Wilberforce » Thu Jun 16, 2011 12:03 pm

Multiple Sclerosis, Spinal Cord Injuries–Targets of Promising Test

Researchers from Perdue University have found that a medical test originally developed to measure a toxin found in tobacco smokers could be adapted to measure the same toxin in people with spinal cord injuries and multiple sclerosis.

The toxin the test detects is called acrolein, which is produced by the body after injuries are sustained by nerve cells. When the nerve cells are injured, a cascade effect happens, triggering biochemical events in the body that worsen the severity of the injury. There are already drugs available that reduce the amount of acrolein found in the body. The test could potentially be very useful as a non-invasive way to detect and measure acrolein, which could open the door to better treatment options.

Purdue Researcher Riyi Shi Studies a Toxin That Affects Multiple Sclerosis Symptoms

“If the acrolein level is high, it needs to be reduced, and we already have effective acrolein removers to do so,” said Riyi Shi, professor of neuroscience and biomedical engineering in Purdue University’s Department of Basic Medical Sciences, School of Veterinary Medicine, who is working with Purdue’s Center for Paralysis Research and Weldon School of Biomedical Engineering. “Reducing or removing acrolein may lessen the severity of symptoms in people who have nerve damage, but there has not been a practical way to monitor acrolein levels in nervous system trauma and diseases.”

“Based on this method, it was revealed that acrolein is significantly elevated in smokers and decreases following the cessation of cigarette smoke,” Shi said. “However, such a method has not been widely used for conditions in which acrolein is elevated due to central nervous system damage or disease.”

“We wanted to see if higher levels of acrolein corresponds to greater severity of spinal cord injury, and the answer is yes,” said Shi, who is working with Bruce Cooper, director of the Metabolite Profiling Facility in the Bindley Bioscience Center of Purdue’s Discovery Park. “This means reducing acrolein may help to control symptoms.”

This test does not detect acrolein directly, but rather determines if a byproduct of acrolein, a metabolite chemical compound called N-acetyl-S-3-Hydroxypropylcysteine, or 3-HPMA is present.

“Acrolein is very volatile, so it doesn’t remain stable long enough to monitor, but one molecule of acrolein will make one molecule of 3-HPMA, which is very stable in urine,” Shi said.

A Purdue University Researcher Studies Acrolein and Multiple Sclerosis

Acrolein is damaging to mitochondria, the energy source of cells. In multiple sclerosis, acrolein compromises the myelin sheath that protects the nerve’s axon, and it has a possible role in other diseases, as well.

“Nervous system trauma and diseases are like many other illnesses: A disease-associated marker can be critical for making a diagnosis, a therapeutic selection and a treatment evaluation,” Shi said. “Therefore, determination of acrolein levels gives you more assurance that you have an intense biochemical imbalance and biochemical damage and that you should use an acrolein scavenger as a treatment. We used different levels of hydralazine to see if it causes a dose-dependent reduction of 3-HPMA and found that, in fact, it did. This shows that this method is capable of monitoring the decrease of acrolein through treatment with acrolein-removing medications.”

Professor Shi Investigates Toxin That May Worsen MS and SCI Symptoms

“Due to widespread involvement of acrolein in the body, the benefits of this study have the potential to significantly enhance human health,” Shi said. “For example, there is evidence that heightened levels of acrolein could diminish an individual’s ability to recover fully from stroke and cancer.”

The study was funded by the National Institutes of Health, and the research findings were published in the Journal of Neurotrauma.

Do you know a smoker with multiple sclerosis or spinal cord injury? What would you tell them about the connection between cigarette smoke, MS, and SCI?

Source:
scienceblog.com/63851/promising-test-for-spinal-cord-injuries-multiple-sclerosis/

http://www.amsvans.com/blog/multiple-sc ... sing-test/
________________________________________________________________________

Promising test for spinal cord injuries, multiple sclerosis

Jun 14, 2013 | Health

A medical test previously developed to measure a toxin found in tobacco smokers has been adapted to measure the same toxin in people suffering from spinal cord injuries and multiple sclerosis, offering a potential tool to reduce symptoms.

The toxin, called acrolein, is produced in the body after nerve cells are injured, triggering a cascade of biochemical events thought to worsen the injury’s severity. Acrolein (pronounced a-KRO-le-an) also may play an important role in multiple sclerosis and other conditions.

Because drugs already exist to reduce the concentration of acrolein in the body, being able to detect and measure it non-invasively represents a potential treatment advance, said Riyi Shi (pronounced Ree Shee), a professor of neuroscience and biomedical engineering in Purdue University’s Department of Basic Medical Sciences, School of Veterinary Medicine, Center for Paralysis Research and Weldon School of Biomedical Engineering.

“If the acrolein level is high it needs to be reduced, and we already have effective acrolein removers to do so,” Shi said. “Reducing or removing acrolein may lessen the severity of symptoms in people who have nerve damage, but there has not been a practical way to monitor acrolein levels in nervous system trauma and diseases.”

The toxin is present in tobacco smoke and air pollutants. A method had been developed previously to detect and measure acrolein in the urine of smokers, but it has not been used in people suffering from conditions in which the body produces acrolein internally.

“Based on this method, it was revealed that acrolein is significantly elevated in smokers and decreases following the cessation of cigarette smoke,” Shi said. “However, such a method has not been widely used for conditions in which acrolein is elevated due to central nervous system damage or disease.”

The researchers tested the method in laboratory animals.

“We wanted to see if higher levels of acrolein corresponds to greater severity of spinal cord injury, and the answer is yes,” said Shi, who is working with Bruce Cooper, director of the Metabolite Profiling Facility in the Bindley Bioscience Center of Purdue’s Discovery Park. “This means reducing acrolein may help to control symptoms.”

New findings are detailed in a research paper that recently appeared online in the Journal of Neurotrauma. The paper, which also will appear in an upcoming print edition of the journal, was authored by doctoral students Lingxing Zheng, Jonghyuck Park, Michael Walls and Melissa Tully; Amber Jannasch, laboratory manager of the Metabolite Profiling Facility; and Cooper and Shi.

The method does not detect acrolein directly but determines the presence of a byproduct, or metabolite, of acrolein in the urine. The metabolite is a chemical compound called N-acetyl-S-3-Hydroxypropylcysteine, or 3-HPMA.

“Acrolein is very volatile, so it doesn’t remain stable long enough to monitor, but one molecule of acrolein will make one molecule of 3-HPMA, which is very stable in urine,” Shi said.

Laboratory rats were injected with different doses of acrolein, and findings showed that the detection technique is able to accurately measure these differences in acrolein concentration in the urine. The technique might one day be performed routinely in a doctor’s office.

“The non-invasive nature of measuring 3-HPMA concentrations in urine allows for long-term monitoring of acrolein in the same animal and ultimately in human clinical studies,” Shi said.

Two drugs have been shown to be effective in reducing acrolein levels in the body: hydralazine and phenelzine, which have been approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration for hypertension and depression, respectively.

The testing method could be used in conjunction with other measures to test patients for the progress of spinal cord disease.

“Nervous system trauma and diseases are like many other illnesses: A disease-associated marker can be critical for making a diagnosis, a therapeutic selection and a treatment evaluation,” Shi said. “Therefore, determination of acrolein levels gives you more assurance that you have an intense biochemical imbalance and biochemical damage and that you should use an acrolein scavenger as a treatment. We used different levels of hydralazine to see if it causes a dose-dependent reduction of 3-HPMA and found that, in fact, it did. This shows that this method is capable of monitoring the decrease of acrolein through treatment with acrolein-removing medications.”

Acrolein damages mitochondria, which provide energy for cells, and in multiple sclerosis compromises the myelin sheath surrounding a nerve cell’s axon, preventing nerves from properly conducting electrical impulses. The toxin has a possible role in other diseases, including Alzheimer’s disease, cancer and atherosclerosis.

“Due to widespread involvement of acrolein in the body, the benefits of this study have the potential to significantly enhance human health,” Shi said. “For example, there is evidence that heightened levels of acrolein could diminish an individual’s ability to recover fully from stroke and cancer.”

In laboratory animals, hydralazine has been shown to delay onset of multiple sclerosis for several days, which could mean several years in humans. Tests with animals also suggests the drug could help to reduce the most severe symptoms once the disease has progressed.

Acrolein has been found to be elevated by about 60 percent in the spinal cord tissues of mice with a disease similar to multiple sclerosis. The toxin causes harm by reacting with the proteins and lipids that make up cells, including neurons.

The research is funded by the National Institutes of Health. Previous work was supported with funding from the state of Indiana.

SOURCE
http://www.amsvans.com/blog/multiple-sc ... sing-test/
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Re: Acrolein in smoke suppresses the immune system

Postby Wilberforce » Fri Jul 08, 2011 8:37 am

More on Acrolein, Wood Smoke and M.S.
viewtopic.php?f=11&t=3514
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Acrolein Decreases Endothelial Cell Migration and Insulin Se

Postby Wilberforce » Fri May 09, 2014 8:04 pm

http://toxsci.oxfordjournals.org/conten ... u087.short
http://toxsci.oxfordjournals.org/conten ... l.pdf+html
Acrolein Decreases Endothelial Cell Migration and Insulin Sensitivity Through Induction of Let-7a
O'Toole et al
Abstract

Acrolein is a major reactive component of vehicle exhaust, cigarette and wood smoke. It is also present in several food substances and is generated endogenously during inflammation and lipid peroxidation. Although previous studies have shown that dietary or inhalation exposure to acrolein results in endothelial activation, platelet activation and accelerated atherogenesis, the basis for these effects is unknown. Moreover, the effects of acrolein on microRNA (miRNA) have not been studied. Using AGILENT miRNA microarray high throughput technology, we found that treatment of cultured human umbilical vein endothelial cells with acrolein led to a significant (>1.5-fold) up-regulation of 12, and down-regulation of 15, miRNAs. Among the miRNAs up-regulated were members of the let-7 family and this up-regulation was associated with decreased expression of their protein targets, ß3 integrin, Cdc34 and K-Ras. Exposure to acrolein attenuated ß3 integrin-dependent migration and reduced Akt phosphorylation in response to insulin. These effects of acrolein on endothelial cell migration and insulin signaling were reversed by expression of a let-7a inhibitor. Also, inhalation exposure of mice to acrolein (1ppm x 6h/day x 4 days) up-regulated let-7a and led to a decrease in insulin-stimulated Akt phosphorylation in the aorta. These results suggest that acrolein exposure has broad effects on endothelial miRNA repertoire and that attenuation of endothelial cell migration and insulin signaling by acrolein is mediated in part by the up-regulation of let-7a. This mechanism may be significant feature of vascular injury caused by inflammation, oxidized lipids, and exposure to environmental pollutants.
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Acrolein and Asthma Attack Prevalence

Postby Wilberforce » Fri May 09, 2014 9:22 pm

http://www.plosone.org/article/info%3Ad ... ne.0096926
Acrolein and Asthma Attack Prevalence in a Representative Sample of the United States Adult Population 2000 – 2009

B. Rey deCastro

Published: May 09, 2014
DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0096926

Abstract
Background

Acrolein is an air toxic and highly potent respiratory irritant. There is little epidemiology available, but US EPA estimates that outdoor acrolein is responsible for about 75 percent of non-cancer respiratory health effects attributable to air toxics in the United States, based on the Agency's 2005 NATA (National-Scale Air Toxics Assessment) and acrolein's comparatively potent inhalation reference concentration of 0.02 µg/m3.
Objectives

Assess the association between estimated outdoor acrolein exposure and asthma attack reported by a representative cross-sectional sample of the adult United States population.
Methods

NATA 2005 chronic outdoor acrolein exposure estimates at the census tract were linked with residences oif adults (≥18 years old) in the NHIS (National Health Interview Survey) 2000 – 2009 (n = 271,348 subjects). A sample-weighted logistic regression model characterized the association between the prevalence of reporting at least one asthma attack in the 12 months prior to survey interview and quintiles of exposure to outdoor acrolein, controlling for potential confounders.
Results

In the highest quintile of outdoor acrolein exposure (0.05 – 0.46 µg/m3), there was a marginally significant increase in the asthma attack pOR (prevalence-odds ratio [95% CI] = 1.08 [0.98:1.19]) relative to the lowest quintile. The highest quintile was also associated with a marginally significant increase in prevalence-odds (1.13 [0.98:1.29]) in a model limited to never smokers (n = 153,820).
Conclusions

Chronic exposure to outdoor acrolein of 0.05 – 0.46 µg/m3 appears to increase the prevalence-odds of having at least one asthma attack in the previous year by 8 percent in a representative cross-sectional sample of the adult United States population.


"Important environmental triggers include ETS (environmental tobacco smoke),
dust mites, cockroach allergen, outdoor air pollution, wood smoke, pets, and mold."


.
• The Surgeon General has determined that there is no safe level of exposure to ambient smoke!

• If you smell even a subtle odor of smoke, you are being exposed to poisonous and carcinogenic chemical compounds!

• Even a brief exposure to smoke raises blood pressure, (no matter what your state of health) and can cause blood clotting, stroke, or heart attack in vulnerable people. Even children experience elevated blood pressure when exposed to smoke!

• Since smoke drastically weakens the lungs' immune system, avoiding smoke is one of the best ways to prevent colds, flu, bronchitis, or risk of an even more serious respiratory illness, such as pneumonia or tuberculosis! Does your child have the flu? Chances are they have been exposed to ambient smoke!
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