Secondhand Smoke Exposure and Mental Health Among Children..

Research studies on wood smoke and other air pollution.

Secondhand Smoke Exposure and Mental Health Among Children..

Postby Wilberforce » Sat Apr 09, 2011 8:11 pm

Secondhand Smoke Exposure and Mental Health Among Children and Adolescents

Frank C. Bandiera, MPH; Amanda Kalaydjian Richardson, PhD; David J. Lee, PhD; Jian-Ping He, MD, MSc; Kathleen R. Merikangas, PhD

Arch Pediatr Adolesc Med. 2011;165(4):332-338. doi:10.1001/archpediatrics.2011.30

Objective To examine a potential association between biologically confirmed secondhand smoke exposure and symptoms of Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (Fourth Edition) (DSM-IV) major depressive disorder, generalized anxiety disorder, panic disorder, attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder, and conduct disorder using a nationally representative sample of US children and adolescents.

Design Nationally representative cross-sectional survey of the United States.

Setting
Continental United States.

Participants Children and adolescents aged 8 to 15 years who participated in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey from 2001 to 2004.

Intervention Measurement of serum cotinine level to assess secondhand smoke exposure among nonsmokers.

Main Outcome Measures The DSM-IV symptoms were derived from selected modules of the National Institute of Mental Health's Diagnostic Interview Schedule for Children Version IV, a structured diagnostic interview administered by trained lay interviewers.

Results Among nonsmokers, serum cotinine level was positively associated with symptoms of DSM-IV major depressive disorder, generalized anxiety disorder, attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder, and conduct disorder after adjusting for survey design, age, sex, race/ethnicity, poverty, migraine, asthma, hay fever, maternal smoking during pregnancy, and allostatic load. Associations with serum cotinine level were more apparent for boys and for participants of non-Hispanic white race/ethnicity.

Conclusions Our results are consistent with a growing body of research documenting an association between secondhand smoke exposure and mental health outcomes. Future research is warranted to establish the biological or psychological mechanisms of association.

source
http://archpedi.ama-assn.org/cgi/conten ... /165/4/332
• The Surgeon General has determined that there is no safe level of exposure to ambient smoke!

• If you smell even a subtle odor of smoke, you are being exposed to poisonous and carcinogenic chemical compounds!

• Even a brief exposure to smoke raises blood pressure, (no matter what your state of health) and can cause blood clotting, stroke, or heart attack in vulnerable people. Even children experience elevated blood pressure when exposed to smoke!

• Since smoke drastically weakens the lungs' immune system, avoiding smoke is one of the best ways to prevent colds, flu, bronchitis, or risk of an even more serious respiratory illness, such as pneumonia or tuberculosis!
Does your child have the flu? Chances are they have been exposed to ambient smoke!
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