Long-Term Ambient Fine Particulate Matter Air Pollution...

Research studies on wood smoke and other air pollution.

Long-Term Ambient Fine Particulate Matter Air Pollution...

Postby Wilberforce » Fri Oct 28, 2011 5:02 pm

Long-Term Ambient Fine Particulate Matter Air Pollution and Lung Cancer in a Large Cohort of Never Smokers
Michelle C Turner1*, Daniel Krewski2, C Arden Pope III3, Yue Chen4, Susan M Gapstur5, and Michael J Thun5
http://ajrccm.atsjournals.org/cgi/conte ... 6-1011OCv1

Rationale: There is compelling evidence that acute and chronic exposure to ambient fine particulate matter (PM2.5) air pollution increases cardiopulmonary mortality. However, the role of PM2.5 in the etiology of lung cancer is less clear, particularly at concentrations that prevail in developed countries and in never smokers. Objective: This study examined the association between mean long-term ambient PM2.5 concentrations and lung cancer mortality among 188,699 lifelong never smokers drawn from the nearly 1.2 million Cancer Prevention Study (CPS)-II participants enrolled by the American Cancer Society in 1982 and followed prospectively through 2008. Methods: Mean metropolitan statistical area PM2.5 concentrations were determined for each participant based on central monitoring data. Cox proportional hazards regression models were used to estimate multivariate adjusted hazard ratios and 95% confidence intervals for lung cancer mortality in relation to PM2.5. Measurements and Main Results: A total of 1,100
lung cancer deaths were observed during the 26-year follow-up period. Each 10 µg/m3 increase in PM2.5 concentrations was associated with a 15-27% increase in lung cancer mortality. The association between PM2.5 and lung cancer mortality was similar in men and women and across categories of attained age and educational attainment, but was stronger in those with a normal body mass index and a history of chronic lung disease at enrollment (p < 0.05). Conclusions: The present findings strengthen the evidence that ambient concentrations of PM2.5 measured in recent decades are associated with small but measurable increases in lung cancer mortality.

• The Surgeon General has determined that there is no safe level of exposure to ambient smoke!

• If you smell even a subtle odor of smoke, you are being exposed to poisonous and carcinogenic chemical compounds!

• Even a brief exposure to smoke raises blood pressure, (no matter what your state of health) and can cause blood clotting, stroke, or heart attack in vulnerable people. Even children experience elevated blood pressure when exposed to smoke!

• Since smoke drastically weakens the lungs' immune system, avoiding smoke is one of the best ways to prevent colds, flu, bronchitis, or risk of an even more serious respiratory illness, such as pneumonia or tuberculosis!
Does your child have the flu? Chances are they have been exposed to ambient smoke!
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