Exposure to Secondhand Smoke Outside of a Bar and Restaurant

Research studies on wood smoke and other air pollution.

Exposure to Secondhand Smoke Outside of a Bar and Restaurant

Postby Wilberforce » Mon Apr 09, 2012 5:20 pm

http://ehp03.niehs.nih.gov/article/info ... hp.1104413

Exposure to Secondhand Smoke Outside of a Bar and a Restaurant and Tobacco Exposure Biomarkers in Non-smokers

Gideon St.Helen, J. Thomas Bernert, Daniel B. Hall, Connie S. Sosnoff, Yang Xia, John R. Balmes, John E. Vena, Jia-Sheng Wang, Nina T. Holland, Luke P. Naeher
Abstract

Background: With an increase in indoor smoking bans, many smokers smoke outside establishments and near their entrances, and this has become a public health concern.

Objectives: To characterize the exposure of non-smokers to secondhand smoke (SHS) outside a restaurant and bar in Athens, Georgia, where indoor smoking is banned, using salivary cotinine and urinary 4-(methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-bu?tanol (NNAL).

Methods: We assigned twenty-eight subjects to outdoor patios of a restaurant and a bar and an open-air site with no smokers on three weekend days in a crossover study; subjects visited each site once and stayed for 3 hours. We collected saliva and urine samples immediately before and after visits (post-exposure) and on the following morning, and analyzed samples for cotinine and total NNAL, respectively. Regression models were fit and changes in biomarkers were contrasted between locations.

Results: Post-exposure and pre-exposure geometric mean salivary cotinine concentrations differed by 0.115 ng/mL (95% CI: 0.105, 0.126) and 0.030 ng/mL (95% CI: 0.028, 0.031) for bar and restaurant visits, respectively. There were no significant post- and pre-exposure differences in cotinine levels after control site visits, and changes after bar and restaurant site visits were significantly different from changes after control site visits (p<0.001). Results comparing next-day and pre-exposure salivary cotinine levels were similar. Next-day creatinine-corrected urinary NNAL concentrations also were higher than pre-exposure levels following bar and restaurant visits (1.858 pg/mL 95% CI: 0.897, 3.758 and 0.615 pg/mL 95% CI: 0.210, 1.761, respectively), and were significantly different from changes following control visits (p=0.005).

Conclusion: Salivary cotinine and urinary NNAL increased significantly in non-smokers following outdoor SHS exposure, indicating that such exposures may increase risks of health effects associated with tobacco carcinogens.
• The Surgeon General has determined that there is no safe level of exposure to ambient smoke!

• If you smell even a subtle odor of smoke, you are being exposed to poisonous and carcinogenic chemical compounds!

• Even a brief exposure to smoke raises blood pressure, (no matter what your state of health) and can cause blood clotting, stroke, or heart attack in vulnerable people. Even children experience elevated blood pressure when exposed to smoke!

• Since smoke drastically weakens the lungs' immune system, avoiding smoke is one of the best ways to prevent colds, flu, bronchitis, or risk of an even more serious respiratory illness, such as pneumonia or tuberculosis!
Does your child have the flu? Chances are they have been exposed to ambient smoke!
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