Sources and contributions of wood smoke in London

Research studies on wood smoke and other air pollution.

Sources and contributions of wood smoke in London

Postby Wilberforce » Fri Oct 31, 2014 2:45 pm

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acpd-14-27459-2014.pdf
Sources and contributions of wood smoke during winter in London:
assessing local and regional influences

Crilley et al
http://www.atmos-chem-phys.net/15/3149/ ... ssion.html

Abstract. Determining the contribution of wood smoke to air pollution in large cities such as London is becoming increasingly important due to the changing nature of domestic heating in urban areas. During winter, biomass burning emissions have been identified as a major cause of exceedances of European air quality limits. The aim of this work was to quantify the contribution of biomass burning in London to concentrations of PM2.5 and determine whether local emissions or regional contributions were the main source of biomass smoke. To achieve this, a number of biomass burning chemical tracers were analysed at a site within central London and two sites in surrounding rural areas. Concentrations of levoglucosan, elemental carbon (EC), organic carbon (OC) and K+ were generally well correlated across the three sites. At all the sites, biomass burning was found to be a source of OC and EC, with the largest contribution of EC from traffic emissions, while for OC the dominant fraction included contributions from secondary organic aerosols, primary biogenic and cooking sources. Source apportionment of the EC and OC was found to give reasonable estimation of the total carbon from non-fossil and fossil fuel sources based upon comparison with estimates derived from 14C analysis. Aethalometer-derived black carbon data were also apportioned into the contributions from biomass burning and traffic and showed trends similar to those observed for EC. Mean wood smoke mass at the sites was estimated to range from 0.78 to 1.0 µg m-3 during the campaign in January–February 2012. Measurements on a 160 m tower in London suggested a similar ratio of brown to black carbon (reflecting wood burning and traffic respectively) in regional and London air. Peaks in the levoglucosan and K+ concentrations were observed to coincide with low ambient temperature, consistent with domestic heating as a major contributing local source in London. Overall, the source of biomass smoke in London was concluded to be a background regional source overlaid by contributions from local domestic burning emissions. This could have implications when considering future emission control strategies during winter and may be the focus of future work in order to better determine the contributing local sources.
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Re: Sources and contributions of wood smoke in London

Postby Wilberforce » Sat Jan 30, 2016 1:06 pm

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Contribution of wood burning to PM10 in London
Fullera et al
http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/ar ... 1013009825
"Toxicological evidence also gives rise to concerns about health effects from increased wood burning (Bølling et al., 2009).
Additionally, domestic wood burning takes place where people live and at times when they are at home. Coupled with poor winter nighttime dispersion, Reis et al. (2009) suggested that even modest wood burning in densely populated residential areas may lead to PM exposures comparable to those from traffic sources."

"The evidence of widespread wood burning in London may suggest that smoke control legislation is no longer effective. Increases in PM10 from wood burning risks undermining other polices aimed at achieving compliance with EU Limit Values."
• The Surgeon General has determined that there is no safe level of exposure to ambient smoke!

• If you smell even a subtle odor of smoke, you are being exposed to poisonous and carcinogenic chemical compounds!

• Even a brief exposure to smoke raises blood pressure, (no matter what your state of health) and can cause blood clotting, stroke, or heart attack in vulnerable people. Even children experience elevated blood pressure when exposed to smoke!

• Since smoke drastically weakens the lungs' immune system, avoiding smoke is one of the best ways to prevent colds, flu, bronchitis, or risk of an even more serious respiratory illness, such as pneumonia or tuberculosis! Does your child have the flu? Chances are they have been exposed to ambient smoke!
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