Health effects of subchronic inhalation exposure...

Research studies on wood smoke and other air pollution.

Health effects of subchronic inhalation exposure...

Postby Wilberforce » Wed May 25, 2011 5:42 pm

Health effects of subchronic inhalation exposure to simulated downwind coal combustion emissions.
Mauderly JL, Barrett EG, Gigliotti AP, McDonald JD, Reed MD, Seagrave J, Mitchell LA, Seilkop SK ... emissions_

Context: There have been no animal studies of the health effects of repeated inhalation of mixtures representing downwind pollution from coal combustion. Environmental exposures typically follow atmospheric processing and mixing with pollutants from other sources.
Objective: This was the fourth study by the National Environmental Respiratory Center to create a database for responses of animal models to combustion-derived pollutant mixtures, to identify causal pollutants-regardless of source.
Methods: F344 and SHR rats and A/J, C57BL/6, and BALB/c mice were exposed 6 h/day 7 days/week for 1 week to 6 months to three concentrations of a mixture simulating key components of "downwind" coal combustion emissions, to the highest concentration filtered to remove particulate matter (PM), or to clean air. Emissions from low-sulfur subbituminous coal were modified to create a mixture recommended by an expert workshop. Sulfur dioxide, nitrogen oxides, and PM were the dominant components. Nonanimal-derived PM mass concentrations of nominally 0, 100, 300, and 1000 µg/m(3) were mostly partially neutralized sulfate.
Results: Only17 of 270 species-gender-time-outcome comparisons were significantly affected by exposure; some models showed no effects. There was strong evidence that PM participated meaningfully in only three responses.
Conclusion: On a total mass or PM mass basis, this mixture was less toxic overall than diesel and gasoline exhausts or wood smoke. The largely sulfate PM contributed to few effects and was the sole cause of none. The study did not allow identification of causal pollutants, but the potential role of NOx in some effects is suggested by the literature.
• The Surgeon General has determined that there is no safe level of exposure to ambient smoke!

• If you smell even a subtle odor of smoke, you are being exposed to poisonous and carcinogenic chemical compounds!

• Even a brief exposure to smoke raises blood pressure, (no matter what your state of health) and can cause blood clotting, stroke, or heart attack in vulnerable people. Even children experience elevated blood pressure when exposed to smoke!

• Since smoke drastically weakens the lungs' immune system, avoiding smoke is one of the best ways to prevent colds, flu, bronchitis, or risk of an even more serious respiratory illness, such as pneumonia or tuberculosis! Does your child have the flu? Chances are they have been exposed to ambient smoke!
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