Lung cancer risk of solid fuel smoke exposure

Research studies on wood smoke and other air pollution.

Lung cancer risk of solid fuel smoke exposure

Postby Wilberforce » Thu Jun 07, 2012 3:16 pm

Lung cancer risk of solid fuel smoke exposure: a systematic review and meta-analysis
Om Prakash Kurmi, Pallavi Huma Arya, Kin Bong Hubert Lam, Tom Sorahan, Jon G Ayres
http://erj.ersjournals.com/content/earl ... 1.abstract
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http://erj.ersjournals.com/content/earl ... l-text.pdf
Abstract

The aim of this systematic review was to quantify the impact of biomass fuel and coal use on lung cancer and to explore reasons for heterogeneity in the reported effect sizes.

A systematic review of primary studies reporting the relationship between solid fuel use and lung cancer was carried out, based on pre-defined criteria. Studies that dealt with confounding factors were used in the meta-analysis. Fuel types, smoking, country, cancer cell type and gender were considered in sub-group analyses. Publication bias and heterogeneity were estimated.

The pooled effect estimate for coal smoke as a lung carcinogen (OR=1.82, 95% CI 1.60, 2.06) was greater than that from biomass smoke (OR=1.50, 95% CI 1.17, 1.94). The risk of lung cancer for solid fuel use was greater in females (OR=1.81, 95% CI 1.54, 2.12) compared to males (OR=1.16, 95% CI 0.79, 1.69). The pooled effect estimates were 2.33 (95% CI 1.72, 3.17) for adenocarcinoma, 3.58 (1.58, 8.12) for squamous cell carcinoma, and 1.57 (1.38, 1.80) for tumours of unspecified cell type.

These findings suggest that in-home burning of both coal and biomass is consistently associated with an increased risk of lung cancer.

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NEW LINK
Clinical and Pathological Characteristics, Outcome and Mutational Profiles Regarding Non-Small-Cell Lung Cancer Related to Wood-Smoke Exposure
Arrieta, et al
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22659961
PDF DL
https://www.researchgate.net/publicatio ... e_Exposure
PDF DL
http://www.academia.edu/10622420/Clinic ... e_Exposure

Abstract

Hypothesis: Although smoking is the major risk factor for non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC), other factors are also associated with lung carcinogenesis, such as wood-smoke exposure (WSE). This article has been aimed at suggesting that lung cancer related to cigarette smoking and lung cancer related to WSE have different clinical and genetic characteristics.

Experimental Design: A cohort of 914 lung cancer patients was prospectively studied; they had been treated at Mexico's National Cancer Institute between 2007 and 2010. The associations of WSE and cigarette smoking with clinical characteristics, mutation profile, response to chemotherapy, and epidermal growth factor receptor tyrosine kinase inhibitors were analyzed, and overall survival (OS) rate was calculated. The trial was registered with ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT01023828.

Results: Of the lung cancer patients studied, 95.1% were classified as coming within the NSCLC histology subtype; 58% of the patients smoked cigarettes, 35% had a background of WSE (exposure to both cigarette smoke and wood smoke was documented in 12.1% of all patients), and 19.4% patients had no smoke-exposure background. WSE was associated with NSCLC and adenocarcinoma histology, and was also more frequently associated with epidermal growth factor receptor-mutations than cigarette-smoking patients were (50.0% cf. 19.4%), whereas KRAS mutations were less common in WSE patients (6.7%) than in smokers (21%). WSE patients had a higher epidermal growth factor receptor tyrosine kinase inhibitor response rate (39.7%) than smokers (18.8%). The NSCLC patient WSE group's OS was longer (22.7 months) than that for smokers (13.8 months).

Conclusion: NSCLC patients who smoked tobacco/cigarettes differed from those having a background of WSE regarding tumor histology, mutation profile, response rate, and OS, indicating that different carcinogenic mechanisms were induced by these two types of smoke exposure.
• The Surgeon General has determined that there is no safe level of exposure to ambient smoke!

• If you smell even a subtle odor of smoke, you are being exposed to poisonous and carcinogenic chemical compounds!

• Even a brief exposure to smoke raises blood pressure, (no matter what your state of health) and can cause blood clotting, stroke, or heart attack in vulnerable people. Even children experience elevated blood pressure when exposed to smoke!

• Since smoke drastically weakens the lungs' immune system, avoiding smoke is one of the best ways to prevent colds, flu, bronchitis, or risk of an even more serious respiratory illness, such as pneumonia or tuberculosis! Does your child have the flu? Chances are they have been exposed to ambient smoke!
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