Combustion Smoke Induced Inflammation in the Cerebellum

Research studies on wood smoke and other air pollution.

Combustion Smoke Induced Inflammation in the Cerebellum

Postby Wilberforce » Thu Nov 01, 2012 8:49 pm

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Combustion Smoke Induced Inflammation in the Cerebellum and Hippocampus of Adult Rats
Ying-Ying Zou et al
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23106634
PDF DL
http://www.jneuroinflammation.com/content/11/1/176
Abstract
Aims

The effect of combustion smoke inhalation on the respiratory system is widely reported but its effects on the central nervous system remains unclear. Here, we aimed to determine the effects of smoke inhalation on the cerebellum and hippocampus which are areas vulnerable to hypoxia injury.
Methods

Adult male Sprague Dawley rats were subjected to combustion smoke inhalation and sacrificed at 0.5, 3, 24 and 72 h after exposure. The cerebellum and hippocampus were subjected to western analysis for VEGF, iNOS, eNOS, nNOS and AQP-4 expression; ELISA analysis for cytokine and chemokine levels; and immunohistochemistry for GFAP/AQP-4, RECA-1/RITC and TUNEL. Aminoguanidine (AG) was administered to determine the effects of iNOS after smoke inhalation.
Results

Both the cerebellum and hippocampus showed a significant increase in VEGF, iNOS, eNOS, nNOS and AQP-4 expression with corresponding increases in inflammatory cytokines and chemokines and increased AQP-4 expression and RITC permeability after smoke exposure. AG was able to decrease the expression of iNOS, followed by VEGF, eNOS, nNOS, RITC and AQP-4 after smoke exposure. There was also a significant increase in TUNEL+ cells in the cerebellum and hippocampus which was not significantly reduced by AG. Beam walk test revealed immediate deficits after smoke inhalation which was attenuated with AG.
Conclusion

The findings suggest that iNOS plays a major role in the CNS inflammatory pathophysiology after smoke inhalation exposure with concomitant increase in pro-inflammatory molecules, vascular permeability and oedema for which the cerebellum appears to be more vulnerable to smoke exposure than the hippocampus.
• The Surgeon General has determined that there is no safe level of exposure to ambient smoke!

• If you smell even a subtle odor of smoke, you are being exposed to poisonous and carcinogenic chemical compounds!

• Even a brief exposure to smoke raises blood pressure, (no matter what your state of health) and can cause blood clotting, stroke, or heart attack in vulnerable people. Even children experience elevated blood pressure when exposed to smoke!

• Since smoke drastically weakens the lungs' immune system, avoiding smoke is one of the best ways to prevent colds, flu, bronchitis, or risk of an even more serious respiratory illness, such as pneumonia or tuberculosis! Does your child have the flu? Chances are they have been exposed to ambient smoke!
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