Early life exposure to outdoor air pollution...

Research studies on wood smoke and other air pollution.

Early life exposure to outdoor air pollution...

Postby Wilberforce » Thu Dec 06, 2012 11:26 pm

Early life exposure to outdoor air pollution and respiratory health, ear infections, and eczema in infants from the INMA study.
Aguilera et al
http://ehp.niehs.nih.gov/2012/12/1205281/
Abstract

Background: Prenatal and early life periods may be critical windows for harmful effects of air pollution on infant health.

Objectives: We studied the association of air pollution exposure during pregnancy and the first year of life with respiratory illnesses, ear infections, and eczema during the first 12-18 months of age in a Spanish birth cohort of 2,199 infants.

Methods: We obtained parentally-reported information on doctor-diagnosed lower respiratory tract infections (LRTI), and parental reports of wheezing, eczema, and ear infections. We estimated individual exposures to nitrogen dioxide (NO2) and benzene with temporally-adjusted land use regression models. We used log-binomial regression models and a combined random-effects meta-analysis to estimate the effects of air pollution exposure on health outcomes across the four study locations.

Results: A 10-µg/m3 increase in average NO2 during pregnancy was associated with LRTI (RR = 1.05; 95% CI: 0.98, 1.12) and ear infections (RR = 1.18; 95% CI: 0.98, 1.41). The RRs for an interquartile range (IQR) increase in NO2 were 1.08 (95% CI: 0.97, 1.21) for LRTI and 1.31 (95% CI: 0.97, 1.76) for ear infections. Compared to NO2, the association for an IQR increase in average benzene exposure was similar for LRTI (RR = 1.06; 95% CI: 0.94, 1.19) and slightly lower for ear infections (RR = 1.17; 95% CI: 0.93, 1.46). Associations were slightly stronger among infants whose mothers spent more time at home during pregnancy. Air pollution exposure during the first year was highly correlated with prenatal exposure, thus we were unable to discern the relative importance of each exposure period.

Conclusions: Our findings support the hypothesis that early life exposure to ambient air pollution may increase the risk of upper and lower respiratory tract infections in infants.
• The Surgeon General has determined that there is no safe level of exposure to ambient smoke!

• If you smell even a subtle odor of smoke, you are being exposed to poisonous and carcinogenic chemical compounds!

• Even a brief exposure to smoke raises blood pressure, (no matter what your state of health) and can cause blood clotting, stroke, or heart attack in vulnerable people. Even children experience elevated blood pressure when exposed to smoke!

• Since smoke drastically weakens the lungs' immune system, avoiding smoke is one of the best ways to prevent colds, flu, bronchitis, or risk of an even more serious respiratory illness, such as pneumonia or tuberculosis! Does your child have the flu? Chances are they have been exposed to ambient smoke!
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