Emissions of Organic and Inorganic Pollutants...

Research studies on wood smoke and other air pollution.

Emissions of Organic and Inorganic Pollutants...

Postby Wilberforce » Wed Jun 19, 2013 8:29 pm

Emissions of Organic and Inorganic Pollutants During the Combustion of Wood, Straw and Biogas
Seidel, et al
http://link.springer.com/chapter/10.100 ... -6642-6_13

In Europe, wood combustion in stoves and boilers is widely applied for residential heating. In Germany, approximately 15 million of 40 million households own small-scale furnaces, which deliver 7 % of Germany’s heat consumption. Using state-of-the-art small-scale combustion systems, we investigated how the air quality changes due to the emissions of harmful elements and organic pollutants during the combustion of wood and straw.

Heavy metals: Beside the fuel, we analysed all the originating ashes – grate ash, heat exchanger ash, and fly ash – to reconstruct element fluxes. As the input/output balance calculations show, some elements – such as cadmium, zinc, tin, thallium, lead, bismuth and antimony – may also be retained within the cooler zones of the furnace, in the chimney, or in the refractory lining material where samples could not be taken. Only the elements contained in the filter ash are emitted; at most, these element portions represent 30 % of the amount contained in the fuel.

Organic pollutants: The concentration of organic compounds strongly depends on the fuel type, the furnace and the combustion conditions. The emission of, for instance, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs; especially Benzo(a)pyrene) can only barely be detected in wood pellet boilers, is more in wood chip furnaces and is more than a factor 100 higher in wood-log-fuelled fireplaces, indicating inappropriate conditions for complete oxidation. This situation is critical, considering that there are now six million wood log fireplaces in Germany.

The pollutants are bound in fine (<1 µm) particles or gaseous compounds and may enter the lungs’ alveoli and contaminate the body. Clearly, effective emission reduction measures are necessary.

Using PM2.5 concentrations to estimate the health burden from solid fuel combustion, with application to Irish and Scottish homes
Galea, et al
• The Surgeon General has determined that there is no safe level of exposure to ambient smoke!

• If you smell even a subtle odor of smoke, you are being exposed to poisonous and carcinogenic chemical compounds!

• Even a brief exposure to smoke raises blood pressure, (no matter what your state of health) and can cause blood clotting, stroke, or heart attack in vulnerable people. Even children experience elevated blood pressure when exposed to smoke!

• Since smoke drastically weakens the lungs' immune system, avoiding smoke is one of the best ways to prevent colds, flu, bronchitis, or risk of an even more serious respiratory illness, such as pneumonia or tuberculosis! Does your child have the flu? Chances are they have been exposed to ambient smoke!
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