Long-term Exposure to Black Carbon and atherosclerosis

Research studies on wood smoke and other air pollution.

Long-term Exposure to Black Carbon and atherosclerosis

Postby Wilberforce » Mon Jul 08, 2013 5:36 pm

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Long-term Exposure to Black Carbon and Carotid Intima-Media Thickness: The Normative Aging Study
Wilker et al
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23820848
ALT source
http://ehp.niehs.nih.gov/1104845/
Abstract

Background: Evidence suggests that air pollution is associated with atherosclerosis and that traffic-related particles are a particularly important contributor to the association.

Objectives: We investigated the association between long-term exposure to black carbon, a correlate of traffic particles, and intima-media thickness of the common carotid artery (CIMT) in elderly men residing in the greater Boston area.

Methods: We estimated 1-year average exposure to black carbon at the home address of Normative Aging Study participants before their first CIMT measurement. The association between estimated black carbon levels and CIMT was estimated using mixed effects models to account for repeated outcome measures. In secondary analyses, we examined whether living close to a major road or average daily traffic within 100 meters of residence was associated with CIMT.

Results: There were 380 (97% self-reported white race) participants with an initial visit between 2004 and 2008. Two or three follow-up CIMT measurements 1.5 years apart were available for 340 (89%) and 260 (68%) men, respectively. At first examination, average age was 76 ± 6.4 years and mean CIMT was 0.99 ± 0.18 mm. An IQR increase in 1-year average black carbon (0.26µg/m3) was associated with a 1.1% higher CIMT (95% CI: 0.4, 1.7%) based on a fully adjusted model.

Conclusions: Annual mean black carbon concentration based on spatially resolved exposure estimates was associated with CIMT in a population of elderly men. These findings support an association between long-term air pollution exposure and atherosclerosis.
• The Surgeon General has determined that there is no safe level of exposure to ambient smoke!

• If you smell even a subtle odor of smoke, you are being exposed to poisonous and carcinogenic chemical compounds!

• Even a brief exposure to smoke raises blood pressure, (no matter what your state of health) and can cause blood clotting, stroke, or heart attack in vulnerable people. Even children experience elevated blood pressure when exposed to smoke!

• Since smoke drastically weakens the lungs' immune system, avoiding smoke is one of the best ways to prevent colds, flu, bronchitis, or risk of an even more serious respiratory illness, such as pneumonia or tuberculosis! Does your child have the flu? Chances are they have been exposed to ambient smoke!
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