Exhaled carbon monoxide and its associations with smoking,

Research studies on wood smoke and other air pollution.

Exhaled carbon monoxide and its associations with smoking,

Postby Wilberforce » Fri Sep 27, 2013 4:47 pm

Exhaled carbon monoxide and its associations with smoking, indoor household air pollution and chronic respiratory diseases among 512 000 Chinese adults
Qiuli Zhang et al
http://ije.oxfordjournals.org/content/e ... hort?rss=1

Background Exhaled carbon monoxide (COex) level is positively associated with tobacco smoking and exposure to smoke from biomass/coal burning. Relatively little is known about its determinants in China despite the population having a high prevalence of smoking and use of biomass/coal.

Methods The China Kadoorie Biobank includes 512 000 participants aged 30-79 years recruited from 10 diverse regions. We used linear regression and logistic regression methods to assess the associations of COex level with smoking, exposures to indoor household air pollution and prevalent chronic respiratory conditions among never smokers, both overall and by seasons, regions and smoking status.

Results The overall COex level (ppm) was much higher in current smokers than in never smokers (men: 11.5 vs 3.7; women: 9.3 vs 3.2). Among current smokers, it was higher among those who smoked more and inhaled more deeply. Among never smokers, mean COex was positively associated with levels of exposures to passive smoking and to biomass/coal burning, especially in rural areas and during winter. The odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence interval (CI) of air flow obstruction (FEV1/FVC ratio <0.7) for never smokers with COex at 7–14 and =14 ppm, compared with those having COex <7, were 1.38 (1.31–1.45) and 1.65 (1.52–1.80), respectively (Ptrend <0.001). Prevalence of other self-reported chronic respiratory conditions was also higher among people with elevated COex (P <0.05).

Conclusion In adult Chinese, COex can be used as a biomarker for assessing current smoking and overall exposure to indoor household air pollution in combination with questionnaires.
• The Surgeon General has determined that there is no safe level of exposure to ambient smoke!

• If you smell even a subtle odor of smoke, you are being exposed to poisonous and carcinogenic chemical compounds!

• Even a brief exposure to smoke raises blood pressure, (no matter what your state of health) and can cause blood clotting, stroke, or heart attack in vulnerable people. Even children experience elevated blood pressure when exposed to smoke!

• Since smoke drastically weakens the lungs' immune system, avoiding smoke is one of the best ways to prevent colds, flu, bronchitis, or risk of an even more serious respiratory illness, such as pneumonia or tuberculosis! Does your child have the flu? Chances are they have been exposed to ambient smoke!
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