Enablers and Barriers to Improved Solid Fuel Stoves

Research studies on wood smoke and other air pollution.

Enablers and Barriers to Improved Solid Fuel Stoves

Postby Wilberforce » Mon Feb 24, 2014 8:08 pm

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Enablers and Barriers to Large-Scale Uptake of Improved Solid Fuel Stoves: A Systematic Review
http://ehp.niehs.nih.gov/1306639/#tab1
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Supplemental Material
http://ehp.niehs.nih.gov/wp-content/upl ... 01.508.pdf
Introduction
Household air pollution—a major global health problem. More than 40% of the world’s population rely for their everyday energy needs on fuels and stove technologies that have changed little since prehistoric times. The transition to modern fuels has been slow in most low-income countries, and because of population growth the number of people using solid fuels (including biomass such as wood, charcoal, dung, or crop residues as well as coal) for cooking has remained at around 2.8  billion since 1990 (Bonjour et  al. 2013; Rehfuess et  al. 2006). This household energy poverty has multiple consequences for development and, particularly, for health through exposure to very high levels of household air pollution (HAP). Burning solid fuels in open fires or traditional inefficient stoves generates hundreds of pollutants from incomplete combustion, including particulate matter (PM), carbon monoxide, nitrogen oxides, sulfur oxides, polyaromatic and other hydrocarbons, and various organic substances (Naeher et  al. 2007). A majority of studies in this field use PM10 (PM =   10  µm in aerodynamic diameter) as an indicator pollutant, and average 24-hr concentrations of PM10 in solid fuel–using households range from 300 to 3,000  µg/m3 (Saksena et  al. 2003), greatly exceeding the current World Health Organization (WHO) air quality guidelines for 24-hr and annual mean concentrations of PM10 of 50  µg/m3 and 20  µg/m3, respectively (WHO 2006).In terms of PM10 exposure, HAP can thus be placed somewhere between passive and active smoking and, unsurprisingly, most of the well-known health effects associated with tobacco smoking have also been documented for HAP.
• The Surgeon General has determined that there is no safe level of exposure to ambient smoke!

• If you smell even a subtle odor of smoke, you are being exposed to poisonous and carcinogenic chemical compounds!

• Even a brief exposure to smoke raises blood pressure, (no matter what your state of health) and can cause blood clotting, stroke, or heart attack in vulnerable people. Even children experience elevated blood pressure when exposed to smoke!

• Since smoke drastically weakens the lungs' immune system, avoiding smoke is one of the best ways to prevent colds, flu, bronchitis, or risk of an even more serious respiratory illness, such as pneumonia or tuberculosis! Does your child have the flu? Chances are they have been exposed to ambient smoke!
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