Effects of Woodsmoke Exposure on Airway Inflammation

Research studies on wood smoke and other air pollution.

Effects of Woodsmoke Exposure on Airway Inflammation

Postby Wilberforce » Fri Mar 14, 2014 6:21 pm

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Effects of Woodsmoke Exposure on Airway Inflammation in Rural Guatemalan Women
Guarnieri, et al
http://www.plosone.org/article/info%3Ad ... ne.0088455
Abstract

Background
More than two-fifths of the world’s population uses solid fuels, mostly biomass, for cooking. The resulting biomass smoke exposure is a major cause of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) among women in developing countries.

Objective
To assess whether lower woodsmoke exposure from use of a stove with a chimney, compared to open fires, is associated with lower markers of airway inflammation in young women.

Design
We carried out a cross-sectional analysis on a sub-cohort of participants enrolled in a randomized controlled trial in rural Guatemala, RESPIRE.

Participants
We recruited 45 indigenous women at the end of the 18-month trial; 19 women who had been using the chimney stove for 18–24 months and 26 women still using open fires.

Measurements
We obtained spirometry and induced sputum for cell counts, gene expression of IL-8, TNF-a, MMP-9 and 12, and protein concentrations of IL-8, myeloperoxidase and fibronectin. Exhaled carbon monoxide (CO) and 48-hr personal CO tubes were measured to assess smoke exposure.

Results
MMP-9 gene expression was significantly lower in women using chimney stoves. Higher exhaled CO concentrations were significantly associated with higher gene expression of IL-8, TNF-a, and MMP-9. Higher 48-hr personal CO concentrations were associated with higher gene expression of IL-8, TNF- a, MMP-9 and MMP-12; reaching statistical significance for MMP-9 and MMP-12.

Conclusions
Compared to using an open wood fire for cooking, use of a chimney stove was associated with lower gene expression of MMP-9, a potential mediator of airway remodeling. Among all participants, indoor biomass smoke exposure was associated with higher gene expression of multiple mediators of airway inflammation and remodeling; these mechanisms may explain some of the observed association between prolonged biomass smoke exposure and COPD.
• The Surgeon General has determined that there is no safe level of exposure to ambient smoke!

• If you smell even a subtle odor of smoke, you are being exposed to poisonous and carcinogenic chemical compounds!

• Even a brief exposure to smoke raises blood pressure, (no matter what your state of health) and can cause blood clotting, stroke, or heart attack in vulnerable people. Even children experience elevated blood pressure when exposed to smoke!

• Since smoke drastically weakens the lungs' immune system, avoiding smoke is one of the best ways to prevent colds, flu, bronchitis, or risk of an even more serious respiratory illness, such as pneumonia or tuberculosis! Does your child have the flu? Chances are they have been exposed to ambient smoke!
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