The effect of solid fuel use on childhood mortality

Research studies on wood smoke and other air pollution.

The effect of solid fuel use on childhood mortality

Postby Wilberforce » Tue Dec 16, 2014 7:55 pm

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The effect of solid fuel use on childhood mortality in Nigeria: evidence from the 2013 cross-sectional household survey
Ezeh, et al
http://www.ehjournal.net/content/pdf/14 ... 13-113.pdf
Abstract

Background
In Nigeria, approximately 69% of households use solid fuels as their primary source of
domestic energy for cooking. These fuels produce high levels of indoor air pollution. This
study aimed to determine whether Nigerian children residing in households using solid fuels
at <5 years of age were at higher risk of death.

Methods
The 2013 Nigeria Demographic and Health Survey data were analysed in Cox regression
analyses to examine the effects of solid fuel use on deaths of children aged 0–28 days
(neonatal), 1–11 months (post-neonatal), and 12–59 months (child).

Results
The results indicated that approximately 0.8% of neonatal deaths, 42.9% of post-neonatal
deaths, and 36.3% of child deaths could be attributed to use of solid fuels. The multivariable
analyses found that use of solid fuel was associated with post-neonatal mortality (hazard ratio
[HR] =1.92, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.42–2.58) and child mortality (HR = 1.63, CI:
1.09–2.42), but was not associated with neonatal mortality (HR = 1.01, CI: 0.73–1.26).
Living in rural areas and poor households were associated with an increased risk of death
during the three mortality periods.

Conclusion
Living in a rural area and poor households were strongly associated with an increased risk of
a child > 1 to < 60 months dying due to use of solid fuels.
The health effects of household use
of solid fuels are a major public health threat that requires increased research and policy
development efforts. Research should focus on populations in rural areas and low
socioeconomic households so that child survival in Nigeria can be improved.


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Effects of particulate air pollution and ozone on lung function in non-asthmatic children
Chena, et al
http://www.researchgate.net/publication ... c_children
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Particulate emissions from residential wood combustion in Europe –
revised estimates and an evaluation
van der Gon, et al
http://www.atmos-chem-phys-discuss.net/ ... 9-2014.pdf
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Vascular and lung function related to ultrafine and fine particles exposure assessed by personal and indoor monitoring: a cross-sectional study
Olsen, et al
http://www.ehjournal.net/content/13/1/112/abstract

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• The Surgeon General has determined that there is no safe level of exposure to ambient smoke!

• If you smell even a subtle odor of smoke, you are being exposed to poisonous and carcinogenic chemical compounds!

• Even a brief exposure to smoke raises blood pressure, (no matter what your state of health) and can cause blood clotting, stroke, or heart attack in vulnerable people. Even children experience elevated blood pressure when exposed to smoke!

• Since smoke drastically weakens the lungs' immune system, avoiding smoke is one of the best ways to prevent colds, flu, bronchitis, or risk of an even more serious respiratory illness, such as pneumonia or tuberculosis! Does your child have the flu? Chances are they have been exposed to ambient smoke!
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Wilberforce
 
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