Wood combustion, a dominant source of winter aerosol...

Research studies on wood smoke and other air pollution.

Wood combustion, a dominant source of winter aerosol...

Postby Wilberforce » Sat May 09, 2015 6:32 pm

Wood combustion, a dominant source of winter aerosol in residential district in proximity to a large automobile factory in Central Europe
Hovorkaa et al
http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/ar ... 1015300728

• PMF revealed wood combustion for home heating to outclass industrial source.
• Mannosan and levoglucosan in PM1 supported PMF receptor model results.
• Lignite combustion was indicated by the homohopane index of 0.05.
• Plumes from home chimneys caused PM10 up to 500µgm-3 at street level.

Industries in close proximity to residential districts are a historical phenomenon of urban development frequently causing air quality problem in European cities. Mladá Boleslav, the long-time centre of the automobile industry in the Czech Republic, is typical example of urban development. However, this air pollution source reconnaissance study found a source of currently increasing importance for the European cities, wood burning. Receptor modelling, time series of organic tracers for wood and coal burning, small-scale multiple-site PM10 monitoring and mobile PM10 measurement were combined to identify sources of fine (PM0.15-1.15) and coarse (PM1.15-10) particles in a residential district of Mladá Boleslav in winter 2013. The receptor model was applied to hourly concentrations of organic and elemental carbon in fine and 27 elements in fine and coarse aerosol particles at a receptor site. Multiple-site measurements with PM10 monitors showed no statistically significant differences among the monitors. Thus, the source apportionment derived from the central site data should apply to the entire residential district. Campaign average PM10 (33.9 µgm-3) consisted of 88% fine particles. Wood burning (49%), coal combustion (34%), traffic (16%), and industry (1%) were identified as the fine particle sources while combined wood burning and coal dust (80%), road dust with salt (14%), and abrasion of car brakes (6%) were identified the coarse particle sources. The large contributions of wood and coal combustion were surprising for this residential district that is a block of flats with district heating. High correlations were observed between the wood combustion contributions and the levoglucosan and mannosan concentrations. The homohopane index of 0.05 indicated lignite combustion. Peak concentrations in excess of 500 µgm-3 of PM10 recorded during mobile measurements along with visible plumes from home heating, support the source apportionment of the fine particle mass.

Seasonal variations of outdoor air pollution and factors driving them in the school environment in rural Bhutan
Wangchuka et al
http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/ar ... 1015300777

• We report the first ever study on school outdoor air quality in Bhutan.
• PM10, PM2.5, CO, NO2, VOCs and carbonyl levels were quantified for 16 weeks.
• Mean PM10 and PM2.5 concentrations were above the WHO annual guidelines.
• Open wood fire cooking contributed to the highest pollution levels.
• Major particle sources were combustion and cleaning activities.

A quantitative understanding of outdoor air quality in school environments is crucial given that air pollution levels inside classrooms are significantly influenced by outdoor pollution sources. To date, only a handful of studies have been conducted on this important topic in developing countries. The aim of this study was to quantify pollutant levels in the outdoor environment of a school in Bhutan and assess the factors driving them. Measurements were conducted for 16 weeks, spanning the wet and dry seasons, in a rural school in Bhutan. PM10, PM2.5, particle number (PN) and CO were measured daily using real-time instruments, while weekly samples for volatile organic compounds (VOCs), carbonyls and NO2 were collected using a passive sampling method. Overall mean PM10 and PM2.5 concentrations (µg/m3) were 27 and 13 for the wet, and 36 and 29 for the dry season, respectively. Only wet season data were available for PN concentrations, with a mean of 2.56 × 103 particles/cm3. Mean CO concentrations were below the detection limit of the instrumentation for the entire measurement period. Only low levels of eight VOCs were detected in both the wet and dry seasons, which presented different seasonal patterns in terms of the concentration of different compounds. The notable carbonyls were formaldehyde and hexaldehyde, with mean concentrations (µg/m3) of 2.37 and 2.41 for the wet, and 6.22 and 0.34 for the dry season, respectively. Mean NO2 cocentration for the dry season was 1.7 µg/m3, while it was below the detection limit of the instrumentation for the wet season. The pollutant concentrations were associated with a number of factors, such as cleaning and combustion activities in and around the school. A comparison with other school studies showed comparable results with a few of the studies, but in general, we found lower pollutant concentrations in the present study.

• The Surgeon General has determined that there is no safe level of exposure to ambient smoke!

• If you smell even a subtle odor of smoke, you are being exposed to poisonous and carcinogenic chemical compounds!

• Even a brief exposure to smoke raises blood pressure, (no matter what your state of health) and can cause blood clotting, stroke, or heart attack in vulnerable people. Even children experience elevated blood pressure when exposed to smoke!

• Since smoke drastically weakens the lungs' immune system, avoiding smoke is one of the best ways to prevent colds, flu, bronchitis, or risk of an even more serious respiratory illness, such as pneumonia or tuberculosis! Does your child have the flu? Chances are they have been exposed to ambient smoke!
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