Secondhand smoke and infertility in women

Research studies on wood smoke and other air pollution.

Secondhand smoke and infertility in women

Postby Wilberforce » Fri Dec 18, 2015 10:53 am

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Associations between lifetime tobacco exposure with infertility and age at natural menopause: the Women's Health Initiative Observational Study
Hyland et al
http://tobaccocontrol.bmj.com/content/e ... 015-052510
Abstract

Background
Several studies have investigated the association of tobacco use with infertility and age at natural menopause, yet few have explored secondhand smoke (SHS) exposure with these outcomes. This study offers a comprehensive, quantified secondary data analysis of these issues using the Women's Health Initiative Observational Study (WHI OS).

Purpose
This study examines associations between lifetime tobacco exposure—active smoking and SHS—and infertility and natural menopause (before age 50).

Methods
Information on smoking, lifetime fertility status, and age at natural menopause was collected and available from 93 676 postmenopausal women aged 50–79 enrolled in the WHI OS from 1993 to 1998 at 40 centres in the USA. Multivariate-adjusted regression models were used to estimate ORs and 95% CI according to levels of active smoking and SHS exposure, and trends were tested across categories.

Results
Overall, 15.4% of the 88 732 women included in the analysis on infertility met criteria for the condition. 45% of the 79 690 women included in the analysis on natural menopause (before age 50) met criteria for the condition. Active-ever smokers had overall OR's of 1.14 (95% CI 1.03 to 1.26) for infertility, and 1.26 (95% CI 1.16 to 1.35) for earlier menopause than never-smoking women. Never-smoking women with the highest levels of lifetime SHS exposure had adjusted OR's of 1.18 (95% CI 1.02 to 1.35) for infertility, and 1.18 (95% CI 1.06 to 1.31) for earlier menopause. Active-ever smokers reached menopause 21.7 months earlier than the mean of 49.4 years for never-smokers not exposed to SHS, and women exposed to the highest level of SHS reached menopause 13.0 months earlier.

Conclusions
Active smoking and SHS exposure are associated with increased risk of infertility and natural menopause occurring before the age of 50 years.
• The Surgeon General has determined that there is no safe level of exposure to ambient smoke!

• If you smell even a subtle odor of smoke, you are being exposed to poisonous and carcinogenic chemical compounds!

• Even a brief exposure to smoke raises blood pressure, (no matter what your state of health) and can cause blood clotting, stroke, or heart attack in vulnerable people. Even children experience elevated blood pressure when exposed to smoke!

• Since smoke drastically weakens the lungs' immune system, avoiding smoke is one of the best ways to prevent colds, flu, bronchitis, or risk of an even more serious respiratory illness, such as pneumonia or tuberculosis! Does your child have the flu? Chances are they have been exposed to ambient smoke!
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