Mutagenicity- and Pollutant-Emission Factors of Solid-Fuel..

Research studies on wood smoke and other air pollution.

Mutagenicity- and Pollutant-Emission Factors of Solid-Fuel..

Postby Wilberforce » Sun Feb 21, 2016 6:55 pm

Mutagenicity- and Pollutant-Emission Factors of Solid-Fuel Cookstoves: Comparison to Other Combustion Sources
Esra Mutlu,1,2 Sarah H. Warren,1 Seth M. Ebersviller,3 Ingeborg M. Kooter,4 Judith E. Schmid,1 Janice A. Dye,1 William P. Linak,3 M. Ian Gilmour,1 James J. Jetter,3 Mark Higuchi,1 and David M. DeMarini1 ... n=15-09852

Background: Emissions from solid fuels used for cooking cause ~4 million premature deaths per year. Advanced solid-fuel cookstoves are a potential solution, but they should be assessed by appropriate performance indicators, including biological effects.

Objective: We evaluated two categories of solid-fuel cookstoves for 8 pollutant- and 4 mutagenicity-emission factors, correlated the mutagenicity-emission factors, and compared them to those of other combustion emissions.

Methods: We burned red oak in a 3-stone fire (TSF), a natural-draft stove (NDS), and a forced-draft stove (FDS); we combusted propane as a liquified petroleum gas control fuel. We determined emission factors based on useful energy (megajoules delivered, MJd) for carbon monoxide, nitrogen oxides (NOx), black carbon, methane, total hydrocarbons, 32 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, PM2.5, levoglucosan (a wood-smoke marker), and mutagenicity in Salmonella.

Results: Other than NOx the emission factors per MJd correlated highly among each other (r2 = 0.92); NOx correlated 0.58-0.76 with the other emission factors. Excluding NOx, the NDS and FDS reduced the emission factors on average 68 and 92%, respectively, relative to the TSF. Nonetheless, the mutagenicity-emission factor based on fuel energy used (MJthermal) for the most efficient stove (FDS) was intermediate to that of a large diesel bus engine and a small diesel generator.

Conclusions: Both mutagenicity- and pollutant-emission factors may be informative for characterizing cookstove performance. However, mutagenicity-emission factors may be especially useful for characterizing potential health effects, and should be evaluated in relation to health outcomes in future research. A FDS operated as intended by the manufacturer is safer than a TSF, but without adequate ventilation, it still results in poor indoor air quality.
• The Surgeon General has determined that there is no safe level of exposure to ambient smoke!

• If you smell even a subtle odor of smoke, you are being exposed to poisonous and carcinogenic chemical compounds!

• Even a brief exposure to smoke raises blood pressure, (no matter what your state of health) and can cause blood clotting, stroke, or heart attack in vulnerable people. Even children experience elevated blood pressure when exposed to smoke!

• Since smoke drastically weakens the lungs' immune system, avoiding smoke is one of the best ways to prevent colds, flu, bronchitis, or risk of an even more serious respiratory illness, such as pneumonia or tuberculosis! Does your child have the flu? Chances are they have been exposed to ambient smoke!
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