2003 CIGARETTE SMOKING AND INCREASE IN LONG TERM MUSCULOSKELTAL DISABILITY
A study of 15,140 US Army personnel over 8 years found that cigarette smokers had significantly more long term musculoskeletal disabilities (generally defined as being expected to be permanent or cause disability for more than 18 months). Smokers had many more long term musculoskeletal disabilities than non-smokers for many types of injuries including knee meniscal injury (p<0.001), collateral ligament injury (p=0.003), should rotator cuff injury (p=0.01), chondromalacia (or damage to knee cartiledge p=0.03) and intervertebral disk injury (p=0.05). Results were adjusted for age, race and socioeconomic factors. Smoking may delay bone/joint healing by damaging the blood vessels and reducing blood flow, by producing carbon monoxide which reduces oxygen in the blood and by suppressing the immune system.
- Andrew Lincoln et al. The effect of cigarette smoking on musculoskeletal- related disability. American Journal of Industrial Medicine 2003;43:337-349.
[Ed.Wood smoke would cause similar reduction in blood flow, and oxygen and also suppresses the immune system.]